This is an open-book, take-home essay exam. You are required to answer two of the
questions stated below, one from Group A and one from Group B. Answers must be
typed (double-spaced) and total length of your exam should be around 12 pages, In this
exam it is expected that you will:
0 Answer the entire question as thoroughly as space provides,
0 It is expected that answers will clearly show an integration of lecture notes and
assigned readings. It is also expected that direct quotations from primary sources (e.g.
Muir, Leopold excerpts) and other assigned readings (e. g. Butkus article, R. Nash,
Columbia River Pastoral Letter) will be used to support your answers_
o Write in a manner that reflects good grammar, sentence structure, paragraph
9 Direct quotes from readings must be cited using either the Chicago Manual of Style
(e.g. either footnotes or endnotes) or MLA in-text citations. Take special care in using
printed copies of lecture notes from on-line reserve. Statements taken directly from
these lecture sources must be cited. Exam must have a title page but include a works
cited page only if you are consulting sources beyond required readings. The exam is
due on July 31, 2014.
1. The western American author, Wallace Stegner has called A Sand County Almanac
a “holy book in conservation circles” and Aldo Leopold “an American Isaiah.” In
this essay discuss the significance of Leopold’s “The Land Ethic” for environmental
ethics. Be sure to include the conceptual foundations of the land ethic as well as its
major characteristics and implications. Conclude your essay with your own critical
assessment of Leopold’s land ethic and what it would mean if we (you) and our
culture were to embrace Leopold’s ethical perspective.
2. The ecocentric position (also called biocentric and/or egalitarian) within the terralfl
of environmental ethics is the most recent and, according to many, the most radlcfll
position within this field of ethical reflection. Representative of: this perspectlve IS
the position of Holmes Rolston III, Deep Ecology and Eco-Feminism. Using
assigned readings and lecture notes, provide a thorough summary Of these threfit of
variations of an ecocentric environmental ethic. Conclude with YOUT assessme
this position and how it compares/contrasts with your own.